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Setting your child up for success in the future is one of your responsibilities as a parent or guardian. This responsibility doesn’t require you to save money for their future, but it certainly helps them to get started on the right foot.
One of the best ways you can do this is by setting up a retirement account for them that you can save in over time. A Minor Roth IRA is the investing loophole that will set your child up for retirement because compounding interest has more time to work. However, as an immigrant there are many factors to consider when determining if you are eligible to contribute to an IRA on your child’s behalf.
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What is a Minor Roth IRA?
An IRA is an individual retirement account. It enables you to save for retirement outside of an employer-sponsored plan.
A Roth IRA designates how your money is invested for tax purposes. For this type of an account, you contribute post-tax dollars. As soon as your child has earned income, you can open a Minor Roth IRA on their behalf.
The money will grow tax-free until your child reaches retirement age. This means that they will be able to withdraw the money from the account without paying taxes or penalties on the earnings – as long as they are at least 59-1/2 years old and have held the Roth IRA for five years.
Contributions to the account can always be withdrawn tax and penalty free. However, if they need to withdraw earnings before their age and time requirements have been met, they will pay ordinary income taxes and a 10% penalty on the earnings. There can be exceptions to the penalty if they are using the funds toward education, health care expenses, or a first-time home purchase.
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What are the contribution limits?
You will have a maximum amount that you can put into your Roth IRA or your child’s Roth IRA for every tax year. The IRS announces if there will be an increased contribution limit for the following tax year each year.
For 2019, an individual under the age of 50 can contribute up to a maximum of $6,000, while an individual aged 50 or older can contribute up to a maximum of $7,000. Your contribution will need to be either the amount of the limit or the amount of your earned income, whichever is lower.
Example: You must earn at least as much as you contribute to your IRA. For instance, if you earn $6,000 or more during 2019, then you can contribute the maximum contribution of $6,000 for the tax year. However, if you earn $3,000 during 2019, then you can only contribute up to $3,000.
You have until the tax-filing deadline of the following calendar year to make your contributions. For instance, for the 2019 tax year, you have from January 1, 2019, until April 15, 2020, to make your contributions.
What are the income limits?
Because a Roth IRA has such great tax advantages, the IRS designates that you must fall within certain modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) limits. Your eligibility to contribute also depends on your tax filing status. For minor Roth IRAs, the income limits will be based on the minor’s income and not the parents’.
The IRS has a table that can help you determine your contribution limit for 2019 based on their income limits. You can see the IRS website or view the 2019 income information below.
Single, Head of Household, or Married Filing Separately (you did not live with your spouse at any time during the year)
You can contribute up to the limit if your MAGI falls below $122,000
You can contribute a reduced amount if your MAGI equals or exceeds $122,000, but is less than $137,000
You cannot contribute to a Roth IRA if your MAGI equals or exceeds $137,000.
Married Filing Separately (you lived with your spouse at any time during the year)
You can contribute a reduced amount if your MAGI is less than $10,000
You cannot contribute to a Roth IRA if your MAGI equals or exceeds $10,000
Married Filing Jointly or Qualifying Widow(er)
You can contribute up to the limit if your MAGI falls below $193,000
You can contribute a reduced amount if your MAGI is greater than $193,000 but less than $203,000
You cannot contribute to a Roth IRA if your MAGI equals or exceeds $203,000
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How can my child become eligible for a minor Roth IRA?
Here are the three things that must be done for your child to become eligible to contribute to a Roth IRA, even if you are contributing the money on their behalf.
#1: Your child must have earned income
Even if they don’t bring home a paycheck, your child must have some type of employment compensation. This could be something as simple as earning money around the house for chores or babysitting. If you have a business, they could help with that as well. Some business owners even pay their children to model for photos used on their marketing materials.
Don’t worry that the Fair Labor Standards Act states that the minimum age for employment is fourteen. They give the following exceptions that can be completed at any age.
- Delivering newspapers
- Performing in radio, TV, movies or theatrical productions
- Working in businesses owned by their parents (except mining, manufacturing or hazardous jobs)
- Minor chores around a private home
#2: You must open the account on your child’s behalf
Because your child is a minor, a parent or custodian must open the Roth IRA on their behalf. They are responsible for contributing to the account and investing the money for the child in their best interest.
At the age of eighteen, the account can be transferred into the former minor’s name. It will be designated as “Roth IRA” rather than “Minor Roth IRA,” and they will have full control.
#3: You must adhere to the contribution limits
As mentioned above, the IRS sets contribution limits to Roth IRAs. Your child may not contribute more than they earn to the account while also not exceeding the contribution limit. The contributions can come directly from the child’s earnings, or a parent or other adult can contribute money on their behalf.
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What are the benefits of my child having a Roth IRA?
Best Fit for Children
Children are not eligible for the tax deduction associated with a traditional IRA because their annual incomes are typically lower than the standard deduction, which makes a Roth IRA the perfect fit.
A Roth IRA is a powerful tool for young investors who have many years until retirement. The earlier contributions are made, the more time they have to grow.
A Roth IRA is perfect for those who will be in a higher tax bracket during retirement. When they take the money out, they will be keeping more of it because they do not have to pay taxes on it.
Flexible use of funds
Roth IRAs allow contributions to be withdrawn at any time. After five years, the funds can be used for a first-time home purchase without resulting in taxes or penalties. In addition, qualified education expenses can be withdrawn penalty-free by just paying income tax.
Even though it’s not guaranteed, standard savings accounts tend to provide much less interest than investing accounts do in returns. A Roth IRA lets you invest your child’s money in a variety of options that have much more potential for growth.
As an immigrant, what do you need to know?
As an immigrant, you need to know how your citizenship and tax-filing status fits into opening an investment account. Generally, all investment firms require that account holders provide a Social Security number (SSN) or Individual Taxpayer Identification Number (ITIN). This is essential for tax-filing purposes, which means that both you and your child need one in order to open a minor Roth IRA. If you have questions about company specific account requirements, reach out to your chosen investment firm for more information.
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Deciding which savings methods to implement in your financial plan for your child can be difficult. A Minor Roth IRA can be a great option for parents and guardians who want to set their child up for retirement. There are many benefits to investing their earnings in a Minor Roth IRA. However, it’s important to understand the eligibility requirements as well as the contribution and income limits. Be sure to reach out to a financial planner and tax advisor for more information on how investing in a Minor Roth IRA for your child will impact your situation.